Besides martial arts, the bold pursuit of love of martial heroes is an everlasting theme in wuxia novels – modern martial arts novels.
The Jianghu in Wuxia Novels
The comedy of Jianghu has played all over the warmth of people’s feelings and told the world’s love stories.
The comedy subverts the audience’s perception of Jianghu, “rivers and lakes”.
In the past, wuxia wanderers wandered around the rivers and lakes, drinking wine in large bowls and eating meat in large chunks. When happy, they acted chivalrous and fight righteousness, robbing the rich and helping the poor; If unhappy, they would make trouble, and in the end, it would be the common people who suffer.
The Jianghua in wuxia novels has never separated themselves from two settings: the imperial court and the market of the lower class.
Jianghu refers to people in Ancient China depicted in wuxia stories that live by their hands. As ancient Chinese society valued education and scholarly pursuits, these people often found themselves at the bottom of the social ladder. Since wuxia’s martial heroes live by their fists, guess where they belonged? You’ll sometimes see Jianghu translated as some variation of the “pugilistic world.”
Gangs and factions, crowds fighting, kingless law, unscrupulous. That is Jianghu.
Wuxia novels take many elements from Chinese mythology. They often include varied myths and folk stories from regional and cultural traditions. Much of these mythical themes involve exciting stories full of fantastic people and beings, and the use of magical powers, often taking place in an exotic mythological place or time. Chinese mythology has in the past been believed to be, at least in part, a factual recording of history. Wuxia also follows the threads in Chinese history.
The characters in “The Legend of Wulin”, even if their status martial arts are like thieves, when they mention yamen and headhunting, they are so frightened that they can’t walk on the road.
You can imagine that if Chu Liuxiang, the thief commander with the same name as the thief saint, sees the head catcher and flees in fright, this will be a divine horse scene.
The heroes of Jinguri do not need to worry about clothing, food, shelter and transportation, they make a lot of money, often tens of thousands of taels of gold and silver, but where this money comes from, the author does not inform.
When Guo Jing first met Huang Rong, he made a move and was more than a dozen taels of gold. Of course, you will say that Guo Jing is a golden knife horse, and people are rich.
But the money he can bring is limited after all, from “The Legend of the Condor Heroes” to “The Condor Heroes”, have you seen them make money?
The characters in “The Legend of Wulin” need to worry about their livelihood, Bai Zhantang has worn a pair of shoes for seven or eight years, it is simply unimaginable.
These are the story settings of the Jianghu.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years. As the country has a huge and complex landscape of mountains and rivers with great geographical and cultural differences, the literature finds its perfect places for colorful themes, plots and settings. There is a wealth of early Chinese literature dating from the Hundred Schools of Thought that occurred during the Eastern Zhou dynasty. The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science and Chinese history.
Chinese traditional religion is polytheistic; many deities are worshiped in a pantheistic view where divinity is inherent in the world.
Although with so many gods and spirits with magical powers, the themes or settings of the Jianghu are no different from the human world we live in.
Xiao Ji and Lao Bai, a thief god, a saint, a pair of small hair from childhood to adulthood, two first-class masters who are famous in shocking rivers and lakes, one is insane and tragically killed, and the other is whitewashed and re-behaved.
The reason is that the former fights and kills all day, but the latter secretly understands people’s feelings.
Although netizens compared Ji Wufei to a business genius. Indeed, the set of business plans he proposed is unmatched by anyone in the whole play.
Unfortunately, he said his plan was on the front foot, and the back foot was ready to kill and set fire.
There is actually no conflict between the two.
This is showing Ji’s lifeless and worldly side, and in his heart, any problem can be solved by killing.
Lao Bai is just the opposite, although the rumors in the rivers and lakes that the thief saint is a murderous devil, but the fact is that Lao Bai has not even killed a chicken.
Lao Bai’s martial arts skills are not as good as Xiao Ji, and when he encounters trouble, he will choose to outwit.
When Bai Tong met for the first time, Lao Bai took a fancy to the night pearl on Tong Xiangyu’s waist, and did not rob it, but pretended to be her husband, deceived her trust, and then waited for the opportunity to start.
In fact, the business model of Tongfu Inn coincides with the concept put forward by Ji Wufei, and in the two years since the main story of “Wulin Gaiden”, Tongfu Inn has not actually made much profit, which is also a breakeven.
After all, there is “Xing does not go empty”, after all, so many people escape, after all, there are bad people seeking revenge at every turn.
In “Dragon Gate Inn” more than ten years later, Bai Tong and the two have become the owners of a chain hotel, and it may not be impossible to raise funds and go public.
The rivers and lakes are not fighting and killing, the rivers and lakes are human feelings too.
Many gods and immortals appear in Wuxia works like the Emperor of Heaven, Jade Emperor, Queen of Heaven, Queen Mother of the West, Dragon Kings, Purgatory King or the ruler of the underworld, Sea God and Mountain God, Sun Goddess and Moon Goddess, the God of Medicine, etc.
One of the myths describes how the Jade Emperor became the monarch of all the deities in heaven. It is one of the few myths in which the Jade Emperor really shows his power.
Legendary and mystical mountains are a long-standing aspect of Chinese civilization. In mythology, Kunlun Mountain is the birthplace and ancestral place of the Chinese nation. Kunlun is originally the name of a mythical mountain believed to be a Taoist paradise.
The Chinese kept consistent and accurate court records. Although court records existed beforehand, the definitive work in early Chinese historical writing was the Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian written by Han dynasty court historian Sima Qian. These historic records are the main sources of Wuxia novels.
Classical Chinese poetry composition became a conventional skill of the well-educated throughout history. Early Chinese prose was deeply influenced by the great philosophical writings of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Chinese fiction was rooted in official histories and less formal works by numerous writers.
If in a TV series, there are such two characters, one is the daughter of a hero, gorgeous and peerless; One is a widow who passes through the door, and there are many styles.
Of these two, who will be the first protagonist?
The former, of course.
But in “Wulin Story”, on the contrary, Tong Xiangyu is the absolute female one, even if Guo Furong’s role is similar.
What is the difference between Guo Furong and Tong Xiangyu?
Guo Furong likes to “row mountains and seas”, and Tong Xiangyu likes to preach.
Lu Xiucai once complained about Xiao Guo, “Do it at every turn, our play is to condemn violence, but what about her? Violence everywhere. ”
The novels of the Ming and early Qing dynasties, represented a pinnacle of classical Chinese fiction. Wuxia fiction forms an important part of Chinese fiction with “low-class” but vivid settings of the Rivers and Lakes.
Enticing from without; awesome from within.
Jianghu is a word that appeared during the Ming dynasty, and is used to describe the world of the you-xia, swordsmen wandering about the rivers and lakes, mountains and villages.
The word Jianghu originally referred to places where hermits lived, but eventually came to designate what has been termed as the Underworld, the World of Vagrants, or sometimes the World of Martial Arts.
For once upon a time in China the literal translation of River-lake will be used. In the country, lakes and rivers are numerous. The historical River-lake, refers to the world of secret societies and bandits. The fictional River-lake includes the Wulin, and is composed of wanderers of slender means, with no fixed abode. Its denizens include xia, lumpen intelligentsia, adventurers, monks, priests, rebels, cultists, unemployed peasants and laborers, itinerant peddlers, beggars, disbanded soldiers, gangsters, smugglers, and other outcasts of society.
China has a saying that the monks governs most of the famous mountains. Although the Jianghu is made up of the rivers and lakes, but the mountains are a greater part as well.
To these people, the River-lake provided a substitute lineage, which offered them the assistance and protection that they did not receive from mainstream society.
When we read the heroic and legendary novels “Speaking of Tang” and “Water Margin”, and there is a group that is particularly dazzling.
They are tall, mighty, strong, strong in martial arts, and extraordinary, they are a group of idol uncles known as good men in the green forest.
Originally a collective name for a rebel army led by the brothers “Wang Kuang and Wang Feng” in the late Western Han Dynasty, they gathered in Mount Lulin under the slogan of overthrowing Wang Mang’s regime, and later grew to form four major forces.
In order to unite these forces in the Green Forest Army, they raised the banner of restoring the Han family and elected the imperial family Liu Xuan as emperor. After Liu Xuan took the throne, he became the first emperor, but soon lost the battle with the Chimei army, and as a result, he surrendered and was killed, and the Green Forest Army was also destroyed by the Chimei army.
Since the day of its birth, the Green Forest Army has been anti-imperial court as its purpose, so those heroes and heroes who “gathered people in the mountains and forests and resisted the imperial court” in later generations were called good men in the green forest.
Mr. He Xiya wrote, “Those who deprive others of their property are either bandits or burglars. The former work in groups, use violence unreservedly; they kill and rob in broad daylight, in open defiance of the law. On the other hand, the later work in cliques of three to five; they sneak about at night, and only resort to violence when their lives are at stake.”
The Lulin is the World of the Outlaw. Its members are termed ‘underworld stalwart’ in The Water Margin, or ‘brothers of the greenwoods’ in Judge Dee novels. The Lulin includes bandits, burglars, pirates and other criminals. In general, bandits and pirates started out by working in small groups. In order to strengthen themselves against opposition, they would recruit from the ranks of dispossessed peasants and boatmen, as well as other members of the River-lake. As their numbers grew, it became necessary to form hierarchies and establish rules to maintain order. The bandits borrowed heavily from secret societies in this respect. Members of the Brotherhood of the Greenwoods swore blood-oaths, maintained their own codes of law and ethics, and communicated with secret codes, signs and languages.
The hero of Wagang Village, the team is the forty-six friends of Jialiudian when they are paying birthday to Qin Qiong’s mother. There were 22 people from Jianghu, 14 people under Luo Yi’s tent in Beiping Province, 9 people from Yamen who were on errands, and bureaucratic relatives like Chai Shao (Li Yuan’s son-in-law who stayed behind in Taiyuan).
The average age of these people is less than 30 years old when they worship, which can be described as in their prime, they drink and eat meat together during the day, and sleep and chat together at night.
In times of stability, bandits would prey upon honest peasants. Towns and villages would be forced to pay protection money or suffer the consequences. These villages essentially became part of a bandit ‘lineage’, and could prevent the depredations of weaker bandit groups by claiming the protection of their ‘elder brothers.’ Occasionally, villages would call upon their outlaw protectors to carry out inter-lineage vendettas. An independent village facing this type of opposition, would be forced to join a rival bandit gang for their own protection. This would lead to an escalation of the conflict, and such disorder would result in the intervention of the government.
Ironically, for the official charged with the task of suppressing bandits, the Lulin was also the source from where mercenaries for his militia army were recruited.
A related development was that of the village union, which was organized and led by the peasants themselves, to resist bandits, and oppose the more egregious demands of the local elite. Such groups were often sympathetic to anti-dynastic revolutionaries, due to infiltration of their ranks by members of secret societies. Officials called such groups ‘bogus militia’ or ‘bandit militia’ for their armed resistance to tax-collectors, and for the ease with which they became actual bandits when instigated by secret societies. Even traditional bandits became full-fledged rebels during periods of turmoil, leading popular uprisings against oppressive landlords. It was also quite common for such bandit groups to work in conjunction with anti-dynastic secret societies. In the wuxia genre, righteous bandits who opposed local despots and protected the weak were known as dao-xia.
In many ways, wulin is the same as lulin. But there are differences too.
In the evaluation of Liangshan 108 generals, many people focus on the word “good man” and criticize them vigorously. For example, many people will say that “Li Kui even killed a four-year-old child, and he is not worthy of being called a good man at all”, “Wu Song killed 15 members of Zhang Dujian’s family, indiscriminately killing innocents, and he is not a good man at all”, “what bullshit is a good man, they are all a gang of robbers who kill people and set fires”, “look carefully, those who have not killed people are not called good men, and those who have killed people are called good men”, “Liangshan good men are not good people, how can they be called good men” and so on. Some people even say that the “good man” in the Water Margin is an anti-language, a derogatory meaning, and a satire on the 108 generals of Liangshan.
Obviously, most people understand “good man” as a good person, even a saint, a perfect person.
Wulin is the martial world of the good men fighting for justice. This group of martial heroes live in the forest as freemen as well as exiles, expelled from the “normal society”.
The Wulin exists only in fiction, and is a term used to describe the World of the Martial Arts. This is the world of the wuxia heroes of authors like Jin Yong and Gu Long, as well as the Hong Kong cinema (or rather, the Mandarin cinema). It is a world in which xia dedicate their lives to perfecting their martial skills, and fighting for truth, justice and the Confucian way. More worldly xia seek glory, fame and wealth. In fiction, these members of the Wulin carry on the shi legacy, and follow many of the rules embodied in wude (martial virtue), li (chivalry), hao (gallantry), and bao (vengeance). In the River-lake, the elite of the Wulin are known as gao shou (lit: high hands) or huang-baofu (lit: yellow-bags), and treated with the utmost of respect and deference.
Sects and Secret Societies
In the River-lake, a man cannot decide for himself.
Within the five major sects of Shaolin, Wudang, Emei, Kunlun, and Kongyu, there are many tribes, and if a certain routine in each tribe has prominent characteristics, it may develop into a new tribe. In addition to the four major schools, there are a larger number of smaller factions, like Tianxing Sect, or Stars In The Sky, forming a grand view of Chinese martial arts culture. From the perspective of organization, the Wulin Group is represented as a sect; From the perspective of the inheritance and characteristics of martial arts, the Wulin Group is manifested in learning types and routines. The sect has a stronger sociality, and the fist types and routines have stronger skills. These two concepts of the Wulin Group, summarized from different angles, are mutually inclusive and intersecting.
Shaolin School originated from the Shaolin Temple of Songshan in Henan. Shaolin martial arts are extremely rich in content, among which the essence of Shaolin boxing is called “Shaolin Five Fists”, which refers to dragon fist, tiger fist, leopard fist, snake fist and crane fist, divided into dozens of Shaolin fist methods such as small Hong fist, big hong fist, arhat fist, plum blossom pile cannon pounding, as well as knives, guns, swords, shovels, sticks and other equipment techniques, and created Shaolin Yi Tendon Gong, small martial arts, yin and yang gong, mixed yuan qigong and other qigong. Among the branches of the Shaolin Temple, the southern Shaolin is the most important.
It is named after the Wudang Mountain that originates in Jun County, Hubei. Wudang martial arts originated in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties and flourished in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. The style of Wudang boxing is characterized by static braking, soft and rigid, short to long, slow to strike fast, to move the air with will, and to luck the body with qi. The tribes of Wudang include the Songxi faction, the Huaihe faction, the Excalibur faction, the Yisong faction, the Longmen faction, the Gongjia Southern faction, etc., and the Xuanwu faction and the northern faction Taijimen.
Emei is really “quiet as a virgin, moving like a rabbit”, suddenly magical, ever-changing, Emei boxing gathers the strengths of everyone and forms a unique technique and style. Its main technical characteristics are small movements, large changes, soft and rigid, relying on force, static braking and dynamic static at the same time, attacking and defending, drilling forward more smoothly, counterattacking with force, and winning quickly.
According to legend, the Kunlun sect originated during the reign of King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty. Hongjun passed on three friends together: Laozi, Yuanshi, and Tongtian. Lao Tzu (Li Er) had one disciple and Yuan Shi had twelve disciples. Laozi and Yuan Shi are the ancestors of the Kunlun School. The 12 disciples of the Yuan Dynasty are the 12 ancestors of the Kunlun School. Later, the Kunlun sect was divided into east and west, both of which belonged to Taoism. The Kunlun Sect is far away in the Western Regions, rarely reaching the Central Plains, and the ancestor of the Chuang School is far from being examined. Later, Kunlun sent a strange person who had not been seen in a hundred years to break into the name of Hehewei in the Central Plains martial arts, and the Kunlun faction began to become famous.
Founded in Mount Kong, Wushu is an integral part of Taoist culture, and is known as the famous five martial arts schools in China along with Shaolin, Wudang, Emei and Kunlun. The ancestor was Fei Hongzi, who studied art in the Junior Temple in his early years, and later lived in seclusion in the mountains to learn Taoist art. The martial arts of the Gongyu school absorb the essence of Shaolin, Emei and Wudang martial arts, and its techniques, routines, and technical kung fu are self-contained, paying attention to practical fighting, practical taking, and the purpose of strengthening the body and increasing the strength.
Chinese martial arts culture is brilliantly depicted in the pen of Jin Yong: Shaolin, Wudang, Emei, Kunlun, and Kongyu five schools, each with its own merits.
Unlike the rural bandits of the Lulin or aloof wanderers of the Wulin, secret society members belonged to the urban community. Derived from mutual-benefit societies, the tang (society hall) was a community center, where members could gather to socialize. During times of disaster or hardship, the society provided financial aid or shelter. In other circumstances, they offered physical protection of life and property. In essence, the secret society was a substitute lineage which welcomed destitute peasants, demobilized soldiers, and other social outcasts of the River-lake. It offered security, and a sense of family which members would otherwise not have.
Although kungfu is always the main training in all secret societies, “Cultivate martial arts at the end, cultivate virtue first”, and “learn etiquette before practicing martial arts” are the traditions of most of these secret societies of Chinese martial arts.
In order to maintain order in a diverse company, codes of conduct were adopted by secret societies. Rigid discipline was practiced, and initiation rites and trials by ordeal were required for entrance. Members of groups like the Hong-men were expected to follow the 72 articles, the 36 oaths, and the 21 ordinances, as well as know the 10 taboos, and the 10 penalties. Such restrictions were used to exercise control over society members, and had the added effect of allowing members to commit crimes with an easy conscience, provided that such acts were permitted within the system. However, those who did not observe the rules of the society were punished with draconian harshness.
Wushu or martial arts techniques is the essence of the societies and an excellent national culture, and wushu is a sports event and a cultural form. It has both the commonality of sports and a distinct cultural character. Morality is the value foundation of traditional Chinese culture, and the influence of traditional Chinese culture in the whole development process of martial arts is comprehensive and profound.
Secret societies could be categorized into to major groups — those influenced by religion, and those which were overtly political in nature. Secret societies of the former variety were most common in northern China, where most groups were offshoots of the White Lotus society. Secret societies of the south were primarily of the latter variety, particularly during the Qing dynasty. Yet despite the differences in their backgrounds, there was a large degree of overlap between these types of secret societies. Organization and goals of political and religious secret societies converged, due to the adoption of many aspects of worship and ritual by political groups. These secret societies assembled under the guise of religion to avoid government persecution, and rebels frequently went about their activities disguised as monks. The fact that monasteries had been granted the privilege of buying and selling identity documents since Shaolin monks aided Tang Taizhong in 622 A.D. also resulted in monasteries becoming refuges for political dissidents. This of course led to the suppression of religious sects, which were also occasionally persecuted when their influence became too widespread. For their own defense, these sects would develop anti-dynastic agendas after being driven underground.
Religious elements had a profound influence on secret societies, and were influenced by the Chinese utopian ideal. Since the Tang dynasty, the slogan of the secret society has been ‘Peace and Equality.’ Secret societies claimed to seek parity between commoner and gentry elite. In addition, secret societies welcomed women to their ranks. In contrast to mainstream tradition, many secret societies asserted equality of the sexes, and women were able to achieve high rank in such societies. In their efforts to protect the interests of the disenfranchised, secret societies promoted mutual aid, and instructed members in the martial arts. They organized village defense forces so that peasants could resist the burden of heavy taxes by corrupt officials and landlords, and often promulgated moral and social reform.
The leadership of secret societies came from the lumpen intelligentsia — degree holders unable or unwilling to find jobs, failed examination candidates, ex-military officers, yamen clerks, monks, priests, and other literate members of the River-lake. Secret societies offered educated men who could not fit into the roles prescribed for officials with normal government careers an alternative path to achieve power and status. From a political standpoint, secret societies functioned in a manner similar to gentry clan lineages. They sought to influence local government by bullying weak officials or bribing corrupt ones. If the government was strong, their activities fell more along the lines of petty outlawry, smuggling, and resisting tax-collectors. The militias that were organized to suppress such activities were only nominally led by the local gentry. The actual training and command of the troops was relegated to subalterns, who were often members of secret societies. Further infiltration by secret society members allowed militia units to be transformed to bandit or rebel group under the proper conditions.
During times of disorder, foreign invasion, and weak government, secret societies frequently instigated peasant revolts, and allied themselves with professional bandit groups to challenge the imperial state. In fact, secret societies have been directly involved in every peasant rebellion throughout Chinese history.
The Rivers and Lakes in Wuxia Novels
Let’s have a read on a typical story from the rivers and lakes.
Lao Xing and Xiaoliu are from the same countryside, the same uneducated, the same incompetent in handling cases, why Xiaoliu finally managed to enter the six doors of empowerment, but Lao Xing is still a head-scratcher.
Little Six is even more worldly.
Yan Xiaoliu seized three opportunities in his life.
The first time, he followed his master, that is, Lao Xing, from the countryside to Seven Heroes Town and became a catcher; The second time, after learning that Lao Xing joined the Begang, he destroyed his relatives and successfully replaced his master and was promoted to the head catcher; The third time, he leaned on Guo Juxia’s thigh, leaked the situation of Lu Xiucai and Guo Furong to Guo Juxia, and was promoted to the six doors.
It seems to be a casual decision, and even if you don’t think about it carefully, you will only think that Yan Xiaoliu is stupid.
In fact, it’s terrifying to think about it.
On the other hand, let’s look at Lao Xing.
He is far from the apprentice he brought out with his own hands in terms of human feelings.
The biggest change in Xing’s life was to go to the capital to ask for silver from the military headquarters.
Because Jinyiwei handled the case and trampled on the beams of the county public hall, Louzhi County specially sent Lao Xing to the military headquarters to ask for silver.
It is a big taboo for subordinates to ask for money from superiors.
Even if you successfully enter the military department and get money, I am afraid that this career will end here.
Using martial arts to explore the topic of human nature and self-nature is really exquisite. In the front line of the rivers and lakes where all sentient beings are suffering, every day we see and hear and understand that what ware exposed as a last-second display of human nature, and it is really exquisite to discuss it from this perspective.
Modern wuxia stories are largely set in ancient or pre-modern Jianghu of “Rivers and Lakes” and mountains in China. The historical setting can range from being quite specific and important to the story, to being vaguely-defined, anachronistic, or mainly for use as a backdrop. Elements of fantasy, such as the use of magic powers and appearance of supernatural beings, are common in some stories but are not a prerequisite of the wuxia genre. However, the martial arts element is a definite theme, as the characters must know some form of martial arts. Romance is also strongly featured in wuxia tales.
A typical wuxia story features a young male protagonist who experiences a tragedy – such as the loss of his loved ones – and goes on to undertake several trials and tribulations to learn several forms of martial arts from various fighters. At the end of the story, he emerges as a powerful fighter whom few can equal. He uses his abilities to follow the code of xia and mends the ills of the jianghu. For instance, the opening chapters of some of Jin Yong’s works follow a certain pattern: a tragic event occurs, usually one that costs the lives of the newly introduced characters, and then it sets events into motion that will culminate in the primary action of the story.
Other stories use different structures. For instance, the protagonist is denied admission into a martial arts sect. He experiences hardships and trains secretly and waits until there is an opportunity for him to show off his skills and surprise those who initially looked down on him. Some stories feature a mature hero with powerful martial arts abilities confronting an equally powerful antagonist as his nemesis. The plot will gradually meander to a final dramatic showdown between the protagonist and his nemesis. These types of stories were prevalent during the era of anti-Qing revolutionaries.
Certain stories have unique plots, such as those by Gu Long and Huang Yi. Gu Long’s works have an element of mystery and are written like detective stories. The protagonist, usually a formidable martial artist and intelligent problem-solver, embarks on a quest to solve a mystery such as a murder case. Huang Yi’s stories are blended with science fiction.
Despite these genre-blending elements, wuxia is primarily a historical genre of fiction. Notwithstanding this, wuxia writers openly admit that they are unable to capture the entire history of a course of events and instead choose to structure their stories along the pattern of the protagonist’s progression from childhood to adulthood instead. The progression may be symbolic rather than literal, as observed in Jin Yong’s The Smiling, Proud Wanderer, where Linghu Chong progresses from childish concerns and dalliances into much more adult ones as his unwavering loyalty repeatedly thrusts him into the rocks of betrayal at the hands of his inhumane master.
Far away. When I was a child, I watched “Wulin Gaiden” purely as a joke, after all, I never get tired of watching the jokes in it.
Now when I watch this drama, I see life, ups and downs, and tragedies.
“The rivers and lakes are not fighting and killing, the rivers and lakes are human love”, this is a sentence said by Zhang Zuolin, the king of the northeast when teaching his son, and it is very appropriate to describe “Wulin Story”.
In “The Legend of Wulin”, the rivers and lakes are not a specific concept, and the place where Lao Bai retired and the place where Xiao Guo started are in Tongfu Inn.
Where there are people, there are rivers and lakes, and vice versa, where there are rivers and lakes, there are people.
It turns out that you and I are in the rivers and lakes!
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